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Yoga Sutras of Patanjali translated by Yogi Kalinath - Chapter 1, Verse 7

Pada 1, Sutra 7

Sanskrit Verse

Pratyaksanumanagamah pramanani


The right kinds of knowledge are: direction perception, inference and scriptural testimony.


The right kinds of knowledge are divided into three broad categories: direction perception, inference and scriptural testimony.

Direction perception is knowledge witnessed and validated through the five senses. It is often referred to as knowledge based on facts. In another words, what can be observed exists.

Inference implies cause and effect. The Macquarie Dictionary (Australia’s National Dictionary) defines Inference as the act or process of inferring. Inferring in turn is defined as to derive by reasoning; conclude or judge from premises or evidence. An example of Inference is: “Where there is smoke, there must be fire”.

Scriptural Testimony is the revelation of Truth as experienced and recorded by the Sages, Saints and Prophets. A test of the authenticity of a revelation is that it must stand the test of time through its Teachings being tested and trialed, and also be universal in its application.

Sadhana (Spiritual Practice): Practice and develop the right kinds of knowledge by doing, experiencing and testing the following:

i) Direct Perception— clear your consciousness of any association and projection, and allow yourself to experience everything as it is through your senses whether that is sight, hearing, taste, smell or touch. Do not analyze, do not judge, do not discriminate.

ii) Inference— look at cause and effect in your daily life. Reflect on the chain of events leading from thought, belief, willing, feeling to action and from action to reaction.

iii) Scriptural Testimony— Contemplate words, phrases, passages/stories of wisdom from the various Scriptures: Bhagavad Gita, Dhamma Pada, Bible (e.g. Proverbs), Koran (e.g. Look at their Universal Truths and put them into practice and test them in your daily life.

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